from Professional BoatBuilder magazine No. 147
Compiled by Dan Spurr
Greenline 33 Hybrid from Seaway
As noted in the last Rovings column, there were a number of boats on display at The International BoatBuilders’ Exposition & Conference (IBEX), more than the usual shrinkwrap competition demo runabout parked in front of the Louisville Expo Center. By far the largest, and attracting the most attention, was the Greenline 33 Hybrid (32′4″/10m) built by Seaway in Zgosa, Slovenia. The company avers the model is “the world’s first production hybrid and solar-powered boat.” And further, “Greenline is arguably the most awarded yacht in boating history.” That claim is based on 21 International Boat of the Year, Design, and Environmental awards, including 2011 Boat of the Year by Motor Boating magazine and the Miami International Boat Show, 2012 Boat of the Year by the Internautica International Boat Show (Portoroz, Slovenia), and PBO Green Award by Practical Boat Owner magazine in the United Kingdom. And more from the website: “Greenline 33 is the best-selling 10m boat in the world in 2010 and 2011.” Two hundred were sold in the first 18 months of production.
The designer and builder behind the Greenline model are brothers Jernej Jakopin and Japec Jakopin, doing business as J&J Design in Zgosa. They founded the boat-development company Seaway, and it has grown from a builder of sailing auxiliaries into a diversified composites specialist. According to its website, its first production build was the Elan 31 (9.4m) in 1983. Among the 60,000 boats sold since are, in addition to Greenline Hybrid, for the brands Dufour, Bavaria, and Jeanneau, the better known of 48 clients in 20 countries.
Professional BoatBuilder contributing editor Nigel Calder has reported extensively in these pages on developments in diesel-electric propulsion systems, most notably on his work with the European Union–funded Hybrid Marine (HYMAR) project. In this column, we’ve noted new hybrid products such as the electrically powered Hunter 27 (8.2m) sailboat and the Newport 30 (9.1m) sailboat retrofitted with a motor from Electric Yacht (PBB No. 135, page 6); Alt.En’s electric ferry in La Rochelle, France (PBB No. 144, page 10); and others.
While range, power, and efficiency of powerboats operating in electrical mode (with a diesel engine charging large battery banks) remain less than ideal, J&J’s solution seems to be a sensible one, acknowledging those shortcomings. Essentially, the Greenline Hybrid motoryachts have diesel engines for conventional operation, and electric motors for silent, emissionless operation of limited duration, such as a slow-speed harbor cruise. There is no pretense of sustained, long-range operation under electrical power.
Propulsion for the Greenline 33 Hybrid is a single 75-hp, or options of a 150-hp and a 220-hp (56-kW, 113-kW, and 165-kW), diesel that delivers maximum speeds of 9–19 knots depending on engine selected, and a range at 7-knot cruising speed of up to 700 nm. Electrical drive is 48V at 7 kW, and max speed is 5.5 knots. Range at cruising speed of 4 knots is 20 nm. The 11.5-kWh Li-Po (lithium-polymer) battery bank is charged by the main engine-driven generator, auxiliary generator, shore power, and solar panel array on the coach roof. Solar power capacity is 48V, 1,398 watts. The boat meets CE category B requirements.
The model’s basic specifications: LOA 32′4″ (10m), beam 11′5″ (3.5m), draft 2′4″ (0.7m), displacement empty 10,580 lbs (4,800 kg).
Plenty of reserve electrical power on board serves other purposes: 230 (120) VAC systems allow for a full-size electric refrigerator, oven, air-conditioning, television, and other appliances.
Greenline says significant efficiencies are achieved by its “superdisplacement” hullform with low drag “derived from sailboat hull lines.” Two small fins aft improve tracking.
Innovative features include V-berths that can make two singles in the conventional configuration, or pivot together to form a double. The large hinged transom folds to horizontal for extra space on the afterdeck, and there’s a sunroof over the helm. The galley is aft, where odors exit quickly to the cockpit via a sliding glass bulkhead. Price of the 33 Hybrid is about $325,000.
Besides Greenline, Seaway currently builds Shipman carbon sailing yachts and Skagen motoryachts. Seaway has invested in so-called green technology beyond marine products, and builds wind turbine blades, and is diversifying into transportation, automotive, and aerospace sectors.
In addition to the Zgosa yard, Seaway has production facilities in Monfalcone, Italy, and Puconci, Slovenia.
Seaway Yachts, Puconci 80, 9201 Puconci, Slovenia, tel. +386 4 5727 700, fax +386 4 5727 720, website www.greenlinehybrid.com.
My first glimpse of Mark Bruckmann’s newest build was nearly two years ago when I visited his yard, Bruckmann Yachts, in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada (see “Survivor III,” PBB No. 139). Designer Mark Ellis continued his longtime relationship with Bruckmann on this project, the Abaco 40 (39′3″/12m).
The commission originated with a Canadian yachtsman who’d owned a custom Bruckmann-built sailboat and wanted to make the switch to power. In the article about his yard and this yacht, I quoted Bruckmann as saying the customer wanted a “…a boat that is mainly a day/weekend boat, not unlike an MJM. But he wanted it enclosed, more of a sedan, but mostly living space up here and not a whole lot down below. He wanted a single-engine boat. Very similar in purpose to the original Legacy design, though it is a brand-new hullform.… Protected prop for shoal-water cruising like the Bahamas.”
It was tooled in-house, not only because Bruckmann needed to keep his crew busy during the recession, but also because they have the skills and experience to do a bang-up job.
During my visit the hull had been finished (vinylester resin and Corecell foam core vacuum-bagged as a single part), and work was commencing on the foam-cored deck. Displacement is 19,000 lbs (8,607 kg) and power is a single Cummins 670-hp (503-kW) diesel. The overlapping hull–deck joint is bonded and fastened on 4″ (102mm) centers. A substantial skeg protects the four-blade propeller.
As discussed in Rob Mazza’s profile of Mark Ellis (“The Deep-V Refined,” PBB No. 138), the boat features Ellis’s now-signature wide chine flats aft to help the boat get up on plane faster. There’s some flare in the bow sections, distinctive camber in the coach roof, and modest tumblehome aft. The Downeast influence is evident, but with a modern twist. As with every Mark Ellis design, this is a very handsome yacht.
The first Abaco has been delivered to its owner and new units are now being marketed through Bruckmann’s limited dealer network and the home office.
Bruckmann Yachts, 2265 Royal Windsor Dr., Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5J 1K5, tel. 905–855–1117, fax 905–855–9874, website www.bruckmannyachts.com.
Offshore Race Open to Workboats
The Venture Offshore Cup will run again—after 42 years—over 2,500 nautical miles and 11 race days, from London, England, to Monte Carlo, Monaco, retracing the 1972 course of the most famous powerboat race in history. Starting on June 6, 2014, at the Zero Meridian in Greenwich, it will finish in Monte Carlo during the grand opening of the new Monte Carlo Yacht Club two weeks later.
Joining the more than 35 teams with high-spec offshore raceboats that have already registered is a new class for boats normally employed only in professional operations. The Utility Class is open to boats from special forces, coast guards, and sea rescue organizations and will include the new axe bow NH 1816 model built by Damen Shipyard for KNRM, the Dutch sea rescue organization.
Utility Class contenders normally don’t aspire to win a race. They enter to benchmark their capabilities and to test the endurance of crews and personnel under controlled conditions. When I was asked to be the race doctor for the Venture Cup, I accepted on the condition that I be allowed to wire each boat and two of its crew members with impact-measurement devices. As a medical doctor, scientist, and medical officer in the Swedish Navy Reserve, I’ve had a long-standing interest in the effects of high-speed boat operations on the human body (see “Designing Consoles for Speed,” PBB No. 141).
The scientific project during the race will be carried out by HSBO Pro (High-Speed Boat Operation Professionals), a small group of experts in the field, in cooperation with three universities and supported by three navies. Research Electronics AB in Sweden has designed new marine acceleration recorders (MaRecs) specifically for the study based on technologies developed for the Swedish Coast Guard. The MaRecs will log impact and vibration values on the hulls and on the operators’ bodies 600 times per second during the course of the race. Impacts on the operators’ backs will be measured by accelerometers fitted to kidney belts worn closest to the body. The MaRecs will also log GPS data for position, speed, and heading at all times. The methods and equipment were validated in a pilot study during a preliminary offshore race of more than 800 nautical miles in June 2013, when the Danish Special Forces and Military Sea Rescue service deployed crewmen on raceboats to gain experience for future entries.
Only monohulls and hulls potentially useful in professional operations are allowed to enter the Venture Cup. No extreme race designs like Class One or Formula 1 catamarans are allowed, due to significant risk of flipping.
By collecting these data we can compare seakeeping performance and slamming exposure of different hull shapes. This should provide useful guidance for naval architects striving to create better-riding hulls for workers who perform their daily duties in these challenging conditions.
To assess injury risks, a new smartphone application has been developed to record any development of pain in any of the competitors participating in the race. The pain app, which can be downloaded free from PainDrawing.com, will prompt each participant to enter information daily with the exact location, intensity, and type of pain.
Severe slamming exposure often causes back pain and sometimes severe back and neck injuries. Because pain almost always accompanies structural injury, it is the only measurable physiological parameter that can be justified as an indicator of impending injury in this environment.
PainDrawing was based on traditional, validated scientific methods developed and used over several decades, but is now in a form that can serve as an international standard for scientific studies.
By recording and logging the human impact-exposure data we will also find out how much impact people will voluntarily be exposed to. By comparing the impact exposure with development of pain over time, it should be possible to establish a correlation between exposure to impacts and pain. The results of this study can potentially serve as a basis for new exposure standards more relevant than the existing limits, which are all based on differently tweaked mean values of vibration instead of on impact exposure.
Boatbuilders confident of their products enter teams to establish where they should draw the line for how hard to push their teams and platforms.
Manning the PBB booth at METS, in Amsterdam, is a sure way to see old friends and meet new ones. We were pleased to chat with Alistair Cameron, director of Camarc Ltd, the successful Scottish designer of working watercraft. We’ve written about its designs on a number of occasions, including a story in PBB No. 96 on Seattle-based Kvichak, an aluminum workboat builder that often utilizes Camarc for its pilot boat designs; and Alnmaritec (PBB No. 147, page 18).
Cameron provided us with drawings and photos of a recent launch, a 108' (33m) composite Fast Patrol Boat built by Ufast (Quimper, France) and Raidco Marine International (Lorient, France) for an African navy. Construction is single skin, double hull, with a “matrix of main longitudinal and deep transverse frames supporting a robust single-skin shell. The main deck is of composite sandwich construction with reinforcement for weapon mounting on the foredeck.” The superstructure was fabricated from aluminum alloy.
Accommodations are for a crew of 17 with a deck-level mess; the raised wheelhouse has a noise level of just 68-dbA; and there’s air-conditioning throughout.
Camarc is working with Raidco on additional builds from this design for other clients (three being molded in composites and two fabricated in steel), stating that various propulsion systems are available, including waterjet with speeds exceeding 40 knots, and propellers with more modest top speeds of 30 knots or so. The first build has propellers, and sea trials indicate a range of 1,500 nm at 15 knots.
In addition to patrol boats, Camarc’s portfolio includes a wide range of other workboat designs, including pilot boats, search-and-rescue craft, ferries, and crew boats.
Camarc Ltd, Avondale, Bullwood Rd., Dunoon, Argyll PA23 7QN, UK, tel. +44 (0) 1369 701930, fax +44 (0) 1369 705118, website www.camarc.com.
Innovative Dutch Tri-hull
Triade? Triorone? Trieadrieame? Jelle Bilkert is not sure what to name his new creation. Bilkert has obtained a patent for his revolutionary hull design, but the Dutch designer/engineer can’t decide on the most suitable name. In designing the fastest and most stable hull ever, he spent almost 25 years on his master plan. In the 1970s, high-speed catamarans and trimarans were introduced and regarded as spectacular, but they weren’t always stable and safe. Once they capsize, righting them is difficult. And most sailors don’t find the motion of multihulls very comfortable.
A fast-moving, spacious boat with little risk of capsize was feasible and certainly interesting enough to dedicate his thesis to. Unlike catamaran and trimaran hulls, in Bilkert’s multihull design the hulls are at an angle underneath the deck, making the boat far more compact.
Bilkert’s university lecturer Martien Reissenweber was enthusiastic about the design, and the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs provided a subsidy to commercialize it. Bilkert and Reissenweber started working together.
The designers built a 5m (16′5″) scale model and applied for tests at the Dutch Maritime Research Institute (MARIN) in Wageningen. In those pre-computer simulation days of the 1980s, tank tests were the only options for testing new ship models. The process was costly and time consuming. Every new idea led to modifications and new tests. It became clear that Bilkert’s concept worked well. Unlike a conventional multihull’s, the model’s buoyancy was distributed equally between two of the three hulls when the yacht heeled.
Subsequently, Bilkert developed a bigger sailing model and roamed the waters of Zeeland for a year. Those sailing trips confirmed the test results, but the design was put in a drawer in the 1990s when the men couldn’t afford the cost of further tests.
With the introduction of computer simulation, design began again. In 2010, Bilkert and Reissenweber approached Van Oossanen Naval Architects, based in Wageningen (see “The Hydrodynamicist,” PBB No. 121). General director Peter van Oossanen acknowledged the potential of the three-hull design. As a former MARIN employee he was familiar with Bilkert’s earlier models.
Van Oossanen’s state-of-the-art computer simulation programs confirmed the 1980s test results. All the concept improvements were tested with this software. The result was a design that combined very low resistance with high stability. Van Oossanen also compared the new multihull’s resistance and speed with a conventional motoryacht, a high-performance motoryacht, and a well-known 50′ (15.2m) sailing yacht. The slim hulls met little resistance, and the evaluations indicated this model can reach speeds of 20 knots in sailing yachts and in motoryachts with normal engine power, which makes it almost twice as fast as any traditional monohull.
Even at considerable roll or heel angles, the hull design demonstrates stability. It will not capsize at a 90° inclination. “This model can be made unsinkable,” says Van Oossanen. “The sophisticated design has qualities you won’t find in conventional multihulls.”
Sailing can be more comfortable thanks to a larger deck and a more spacious interior compared to traditional monohulls and multihulls. In tests this multihull, configured as a motoryacht, decreased fuel consumption by an average of more than 30%.
In 2010, Bilkert posted a picture of his design on the Internet and was surprised by the number of positive reactions. “It was a stimulus for us to continue the development,” he says. “We decided to apply for a patent and for model protection. There is still a lot of research to be done to assess every possible application for this innovative hull. We will focus on recreational sailing and motoryachts, rather than racing yachts. But we won’t stop thinking, that’s for sure. Perhaps we should also consider commercial shipping, given the low fuel consumption. And the stability and safety of this model should be an advantage for ferry services. But we would have to modify the original design somewhat, because in its present form it will only suit yachts of 12m to 25m [39′ to 82′] in length.”
Bilkert: “We are looking for professional investors to develop a commercial prototype, now that we have obtained a patent. As for us, it would be our role to concentrate on technical support of new investors when the 15m [49.2′] model is being built. We will explore worldwide to see if we can get in touch with investors from emerging markets.”
Noise and vibration are, generally speaking, unwanted on boats. The first wears out the crew and the second wears out parts, mechanical and structural. Over the years a variety of products—foam, lead, vinyl, fiberglass, and others—have been developed to mitigate both problems. Most of these are manufactured as panels that require custom fitting to a given space and covering the seams in some manner to prevent leaks.
Silent Running SR 1000 is a liquid—a “high performance, viscoelastic coating” according to the company—that is easily applied to metal, fiberglass, wood, and many plastic surfaces by conventional means: brush, roller, and sprayer. Water-based and nonflammable, it is said to have excellent adhesive properties. The U.S. Coast Guard and European Union have approved its application on boats. It dries to a hard coating but is sufficiently flexible so it won’t chip or crack due to expansion and contraction of the substrate.
To quantify the product’s effectiveness, the company measured the noise levels in decibels aboard a Catalina 400 sailboat that had four layers of foam insulation in the engine compartment. They then removed the foam, applied four coats (0.035″) of Silent Running, and compared measured noise levels to the first series of data.
|Engine speed||Location||Foam||Silent Running|
|Idle||Saloon||78–80 dBa||70–71 dBa|
|2,000 rpm||Saloon||80–82 dBa||76–77 dBa|
Measurements in other cabins showed similar improvements. The product works by converting noise to heat, which is dissipated through the surface.
Current Inc., 30 Tyler St., P.O. Box 120183, East Haven, CT 06512 USA, tel. 877–436–6542, fax 203–467–8435, website www.silentcoating.com.
Get Home on Hydraulics
Primary propulsion engine failure is something no vessel builder or owner wants to contemplate, especially those who rely on single-screw systems. Reasons for such failures can range from defective components or deferred maintenance to improper assembly or contaminated fuel. Regardless of the cause, when it occurs the alternatives are limited indeed: call a towing service or use another means of propulsion. The latter has traditionally involved a get-home engine dedicated to this purpose (see “Get-Home Systems,” PBB No. 139). While a get-home system is viable, it’s simply not feasible on many vessels because of the space required.
After significant research and testing, ABT TRAC, long known for its rugged stabilizers, thrusters, and integrated hydraulic system designs, has recently introduced a get-home system that relies on—what else?—hydraulic power. Using a PTO (power takeoff) connected to the vessel’s generator(s), the ABT TRAC hydraulic Get Home Drive rotates the vessel’s existing shaft and propeller. Available in 25-hp and 60-hp (19-kW and 45-kW) units, suited for 2″–3″ (51mm–76mm) and 3″–4″ (76mm–102mm) shafts, respectively, the drive includes a soft-engagement system that prevents chatter and grinding; remote engagement; nine hydraulic motor choices; and two different gear ratios to obtain maximum performance. Perhaps most impressive, the Get Home Drive can, once the generator is running, switch the boat from primary engine failure to get-home propulsion in five seconds or less.
ABT TRAC, Arcturus Marine Systems, 517-A Martin Ave., Rohnert Park, CA 94928 USA, tel. 800–535–5377 or 707–586–3155, fax 707–586–3159, website www.thrusters.com.